bet365官方:亚洲冬季运动会项目介绍——班迪球_4

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  班迪球

  班迪球,又称“冰上曲棍球”或“卡尔文球”,在北欧和北美地区较为流行,目前还没有被列入冬奥会比赛项目。冰上曲棍球的传统强队是俄罗斯队以及北欧三强瑞典、芬兰和挪威队,世锦赛的冠军之争多在俄罗斯队和瑞典队之间展开。这个项目的首届世锦赛1957年在芬兰的赫尔辛基举行,1961年起每两年举行一次,从2003年起改为每年一届。

  比赛冰场长110米,宽65米,场两端线的中间各有一高210厘米、宽360厘米的球门架,门柱与横梁均用12厘米×12厘米的方木制成。球拍木制,长120厘米,宽6厘米,底部弧形,重450克。球以多层线绳织成,圆形,直径6厘米,重60克。

  比赛时,双方各11人出场。其中守门员1人,运动员脚着冰刀鞋,身穿保护性运动服,手握球拍,竞相将球射人对方球门。每射中一球得1分,以结束时得分多者为胜队。全场比赛90分钟,分上下两半场,中间休息10分钟,比赛中可随时换人。

  班迪球最早流行于荷兰。19世纪中叶,在英国和挪威、瑞典等北欧各国迅速兴起。19世纪末俄国自行制订规则和打法,称为"俄罗斯冰上曲棍球"。1901年瑞典举行首次班迪比赛,1903年挪威成立班迪俱乐部。1902年设立俄罗斯冰上曲棍球流动奖杯,定期在圣彼得堡举行。1910年德国、丹麦、挪威、瑞典和俄罗斯创建北方冰上曲棍球联合会,由于规则不统一,北欧的班迪与俄罗斯的冰上曲棍球形成两大派系。1953年两大派系统一规则。1955年在瑞典、芬兰、挪威和苏联等国家的倡议下召开代表大会,成立国际冰上曲棍球联合会,将该项运动定名为冰上曲棍球,并制订统一的比赛规则。1957年举行首届世界冰上曲棍球锦标赛。1961年起每两年举行一次。

  冰上曲棍球1952年曾被列为冬奥会表演项目。

  世界班迪球锦标赛(Bandy World Championships)是由国际班迪球联合会主办的。1955年在瑞典、芬兰、挪威和苏联等国家的倡议下召开代表大会,国际班迪球联合会成立,并制订统一的比赛规则。1957年举行首届世界班迪球锦标赛。1961年起每两年举行一次。班迪球在1952年曾被列为冬奥会表演项目。

  虽然班迪球运动起源于19世纪,但国家之间的世界班迪球锦标赛在1957年才开始(男子),女子世界班迪球锦标赛从2004年开始。

  世界班迪球锦标赛在很长一段时间内只有4个国家参加:苏联、瑞典、芬兰和挪威。1985年,美国开始加入。现今,这项运动已蔓延到欧洲、北美洲和亚洲的大部分地区。世界班迪球锦标赛从1961年到2003年之间每两年举办一届,从2004年起每年举办一届。

  世界杯班迪球赛(Bandy World Cup)是在瑞典的于斯达尔举行的比赛,该赛事每年举行一次。参赛的球队是职业俱乐部而不是国家队。该比赛有别于世界班迪球锦标赛。

  世界杯班迪球赛从1974年开始举办,但杯赛的名称由于不同的赞助商而改变。

  班迪球比赛规则介绍

  Bandy is played on ice, using a single round ball. Two teams of eleven players each compete to get the ball into the other team's goal using sticks, thereby scoring a goal. Analogous to soccer, a goal cannot be scored from a stroke-off, stroke-in or goal throw, and unlike soccer, a goal cannot be scored directly from a corner stroke. In contrast to soccer, however, all free strokes are “direct” and allow a goal to be scored without another player touching the ball. The team that has scored more goals at the end of the game is the winner; if both teams have scored an equal number of goals, then the game is a draw. There are exceptions to this rule, however.

  班迪球是一项冰上运动,通常使用一个圆形球进行比赛。在比赛中,两队各11名球员要使用球杆竞相将球射入对方球门从而得分。与英式足球相同之处在于,开球、击球入界内或球门掷球不能直接射门得分;不同之处在于,角球不能直接射门得分。但与英式足球相比,班迪球的所有任意球允许不经过第二名球员触球而直接射门得分。比赛结束时得分最多的队伍获胜,如果两队得分相同则比赛平局。但本规则有例外情况。

  The primary rule is that the players (other than the goalkeepers) may not intentionally touch the ball with their heads, hands or arms during play. Although players usually use their sticks to move the ball around, they may use any part of their bodies other than their heads, hands or arms and may use their skates in a limited manner. Heading the ball will result in a five-minute penalty.

  比赛主要规则是球员(除守门员外)不允许在比赛中故意用头、手或手臂触球。虽然球员通常使用球杆来控制球,但他们可以运用除头、手或手臂以外的其他身体部位,并可有限制性的使用冰鞋。用头触球将被判罚下场5分钟。

  In typical game play, players attempt to propel the ball toward their opponents' goal through individual control of the ball, such as by dribbling, passing the ball to a team-mate, and by taking shots at the goal, which is guarded by the opposing goalkeeper. Opposing players may try to regain control of the ball by intercepting a pass or through tackling the opponent who controls the ball; however, physical contact between opponents is limited. Bandy is generally a free-flowing game, with play stopping only when the ball has left the field of play, or when play is stopped by the referee. After a stoppage, play can recommence with a free stroke, a penalty shot or a corner stroke. If the ball has left the field along the sidelines, the referee must decide which team touched the ball last, and award a restart stroke to the opposing team, just like football's throw-in.

  正常比赛中,球员要通过个人控球手段尝试将球推入对方球门,包括运球、传球给队友以及将球射向对方守门员把守的球门。对方球员将通过抢断传球或拦截控球球员来重获控球权。但是两队球员间的身体接触是有限的。班迪球属于流畅度较高的运动,只有当球出界或裁判员吹停时才暂停比赛。暂停后,比赛通过任意球、罚点球或角球重新开始。如果球沿边线出界,裁判员必须裁决哪方最后触球,并判对方球队重新开球,就像足球中的掷界外球一样。

  The rules do not specify any player positions other than goalkeeper, but a number of player specialisations have evolved. Broadly, these include three main categories: forwards, whose main task is to score goals; defenders, who specialise in preventing their opponents from scoring; and midfielders, who dispossess the opposition and keep possession of the ball to pass it to the forwards; players in these positions are referred to as outfield players, to discern them from the single goalkeeper. These positions are further differentiated by which side of the field the player spends most time in. For example, there are central defenders, and left and right midfielders. The ten outfield players may be arranged in these positions in any combination (for example, there may be three defenders, five midfielders, and two forwards), and the number of players in each position determines the style of the team's play; more forwards and fewer defenders would create a more aggressive and offensive-minded game, while the reverse would create a slower, more defensive style of play. While players may spend most of the game in a specific position, there are few restrictions on player movement, and players can switch positions at any time. The layout of the players on the pitch is called the team's formation, and defining the team's formation and tactics is usually the prerogative of the team's manager(s).

  规则除守门员外没有规定球员站位,但许多球员的专业分工已经发展成熟。广义上来说站位包含三大类:前锋,主要负责射门;后卫,主要负责阻止对方得分;中场,化解对方进攻并控球传给前锋,上述球员站位统称为外场球员,以区别于守门员位置。这些站位根据球员主要占据的球场某侧而进一步细分,比如有中场后卫、左、右中场球员等。10名外场球员可以根据这些站位形成不同组合(如3名后卫、5名中场、2名前锋)。每种站位的球员数量决定该队的战术,前锋多后卫少形成的是进攻型打法,反之则是节奏较慢的防守型打法。虽然球员在比赛中大部分时间处于固定站位,但球员的移动基本不受限制,并可以随时切换位置。球场上的球员布局通称为球队阵型,球队经理有权决定球队的阵型和战术。

  Rules

  比赛规则

  Overview

  概述

  There are eight rules in the official bandy rules. The same rules are designed to apply to all levels of bandy, although certain modifications for groups such as juniors, seniors or women are permitted. The rules are often framed in broad terms, which allow flexibility in their application depending on the nature of the game. The rules can be found on the official website of the Federation of International Bandy website.

  正式的班迪球比赛有8大规则。同样的规则适用于各类不同层次的班迪球运动,对初级、中级和女子组的规则可以适当调整。规则通常制定的比较宽泛,以便根据比赛性质进行灵活调整。本规则可以在国际班迪球联合会的官网上找到。

  Players and officials

  球员和比赛官员

  Each team consists of a maximum of eleven players (excluding substitutes), one of whom must be the goalkeeper. A team of fewer than eight players may not start a game. Goalkeepers are the only players allowed to play the ball with their hands or arms, but they are only allowed to do so within the penalty area in front of their own goal. Though there are a variety of positions in which the outfield (non-goalkeeper) players are strategically placed by a coach, these positions are not defined or required by the rules of the game.

  每队最多有11名球员(不包括替补),其中1人为守门员。少于8人不得比赛。守门员是唯一可以用手或手臂触球的球员,但仅限于在己方球门前的禁区内。外场球员可以按照教练的战略部署采取不同站位,比赛规则未对此进行限制。

  Any number of players may be replaced by substitutes during the course of the game. Substitutions can be performed without notifying the referee and can be performed while the ball is in play. However, if the substitute enters the ice before his teammate has left it, this will result in a 5 minute ban. A team can bring at the most four substitutes to the game and one of these is likely to be an extra goalkeeper.

  比赛中可以替换任意数量的球员。替换不必通知裁判员,可以在比赛进行时随时替换。但如果替补球员在队友下场之前进场,将被判5分钟禁止入场。比赛中一队最多可有4名替补,其中1人可能为守门员替补。

  A game is officiated by a referee, the authority to enforce the rules, and whose decisions are final. The referee may be assisted by one or two assistant referees.

  比赛由裁判员主持,负责执行比赛规则,并有最终判决权。裁判可以配备1-2名助理裁判。

  Equipment

  比赛设备

  The basic equipment players are required to wear includes a pair of skates, a helmet, a mouth guard and, in the case of the goalkeeper, a face guard. The teams must wear uniforms that make it easy to distinguish the two teams. The skates, sticks and any tape on the stick must be of another colour than the ball. In addition to the aforementioned equipment, various protections are used to protect knees, elbows, genitals and throat. The pants and gloves may contain padding.

  球员按规定需要穿戴的基本设备包括冰鞋、头盔、护嘴、守门员还要有护脸。球队必须有队服以明确区分两支队伍。冰鞋、球杆和球杆条纹不得与球的颜色相同。除上述设备外,还有其他各种防护用具用于保护膝盖、肘、裆部和喉咙。裤子和手套中还带有衬垫。

  Field

  场地

  The size of a bandy field is in the range 4,050 - 7,150 square metres (45-65 by 90–110 metres), about the same size as a football pitch and considerably larger than an ice hockey rink. Along the sidelines a 15 cm (6 in) high border (vant, sarg, wand, wall) is placed to prevent the ball from leaving the ice. It should not be attached to the ice, to glide upon collisions, and should end 1–3 metres away from the corners.

  班迪球场地规模为4,050-7,150平方米(宽45-65米,长90-110米),几乎相当于足球场大小,超过冰球场规模。沿边线有高约15厘米(6英寸)的界墙,用来防止球离开冰面。界墙不可与冰面相连接,以便在碰撞时可以滑动,并且在边角应余出1-3米。

  Centered at each shortline is a 3.5 m wide and 2.1 m high goal cage and in front of the cage is a half-circular penalty area with a 17 m radius. A penalty spot is located 12 metres in front of the goal and there are two free-stroke spots at the penalty area line, each surrounded by a 5 m circle.

  A centre spot denotes the center of the field and a circle of radius 5 m is centered at it. A centre-line is drawn through the centre spot and parallel with the shortlines.

  在两边底线处各有一个3.5米宽、2.1米高的球门框,门框前有一个半径为17米的半圆形禁区。点球罚球位置距离球门正面12米,禁区线上有两bet365官方个任意球发球点,各由一个半径5米的圆圈包围。场中央还有一个中点代表场地中心位置,同样由一个半径5米的圆圈包围。有一条中线穿过中点与底线平行。

  At each of the corners, a 1 m radius quarter-circle is drawn, and a dotted line is painted parallel to the shortline and five metres away from it without extending into the penalty area. The dotted line can be replaced with a half-metre long line starting at the edge of the penalty area and extending towards the sideline, five metres from bet365 the shortline.

  各角都有一个半径1米的1/4圆,还有一条与底线平行的虚线,距底线5米,但不延伸到禁区内。虚线可以用一条半米长的线代替,从禁区线开始直到边线,同样距底线5米。

  Duration and tie-breaking measures

  比赛时长和平局处理方式

  A standard adult bandy match consists of two periods of 45 minutes each, known as halves. Each half runs continuously, meaning that the clock is not stopped when the ball is out of play; the referee can, however, make allowance for time lost through significant stoppages as described below. There is usually a 15-minute "half-time" break between halves. The end of the match is known as full-time.

  标准的成人班迪球比赛由两个45分钟组成,称为半场。每个半场连续进行,即球出界后比赛继续计时。但裁判员可以根据如下描述对重要的暂定予以补时。两场之间通常有15分钟的半场休息。比赛结束称为全场。

  The referee is the official timekeeper for the match, and may make an allowance for time lost through substitutions, injured players requiring attention, or other stoppages. This added time is commonly referred to as stoppage time or injury time, and must be reported to the match secretary and the two captains. The referee alone signals the end of the match.

  裁判员是比赛的正式计时员。可以对替补上场、照顾受伤球员和其他暂停予以补时。这种补时通称为伤停补时。必须向赛事秘书和两队队长报告。裁判员可以独立示意比赛结束。

  In league competitions games may end in a draw, but in some knockout competitions if a game is tied at the end of regulation time it may go into extra time, which consists of two further 15-minute periods. If the score is still tied after extra time, the game will be replayed. As an alternative, the extra two times 15-minutes may be played as "Golden goal" which means that the first team that scores during the extra-time wins the game. If both extra periods are played without a scored goal, a penalty shootout will settle the game. The teams shoot five penalties each and if this doesn't settle the game, the teams shoot one more penalty each until one of them misses and the other scores.

  联赛比赛中可能出现平局,但在淘汰赛中,如果比赛在规定时间结束时出现平局,双方要进行加时赛。加时赛由两场15分钟比赛构成,如果加时后双方依然平局,则要进行重赛。作为替代,加时的两场15分钟比赛以“金球制”形式进行,即加时期间率先射门得分的一队获胜,如加时后双方都未进球,将以点球大战决出胜负。双方各射5个点球后如果还未有结果,双方再各射一球,直到一方射空另一方进球为止。

  Ball in and out of play

  界内球和界外球

  Under the rules, the two basic states of play during a game are ball in play and ball out of play. From the beginning of each playing period with a stroke-off (a set strike from the centre-spot by one team) until the end of the playing period, the ball is in play at all times, except when either the ball leaves the field of play, or play is stopped by the referee. When the ball becomes out of play, play is restarted by one of eight restart methods depending on how it went out of play:

  按照本规则,比赛时的两种基本状态包括界内球和界外球。每一节比赛从发球开始(一队从中点开球)直到本局结束始终为界内球,除非球出界或裁判暂停比赛。当球出界时,比赛要根据球出界的形式采用下列8种方法之一重新开始。

  Method

  方法 Description

  描述

  Stroke-off

  开球 Following a goal by the opposing team, or to begin each period of play.

  对方球队射门得分之后或半场比赛开始。

  Goal-throw

  球门掷球 When the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched by a member of the attacking team; awarded to the defending team.

  如果球完全越过球门线未得分且进攻方球员最后触球,判给防守一方。

  Corner stroke

  角球 When the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched by a member of the defending team; awarded to attacking team. The defending team must locate themselves behind goal line and the attacking team must be situated outside the penalty area with everyone but the executor no closer to the shortline than 5 m. As soon as the corner is shot, the attackers may enter the penalty area and the defenders may rush to try to stop the ball.

  如果球完全越过球门线未得分且防守方球员最后触球,判给进攻方。防守方球员必须站在球门线后,进攻方除发球球员外必须站在禁区以外,距底线5米以上。角球发出后,进攻方才可进入禁区,防守方则试图抢断球。

  Free-stroke

  任意球 Awarded to fouled team following certain listed offences, or to the opposing team upon a team causing the ball to leave the field over the side-line.

  在出现规定的犯规动作时判给被犯规一方,或一方导致球从边线出界时判给另一方。

  Penalty shot

  罚点球 Awarded to the fouled team following a foul usually punishable by a free-shot but that has occurred within their opponent's penalty area.

  判罚任意球时由于犯规发生在对方禁区内,被犯规方获得点球。

  Face-off

  争球 Occurs when the referee has stopped play for any other reason (e.g., a serious injury to a player, interference by an external party, or a ball becoming defective). This restart is uncommon in adult games.

  当裁判员由于其他原因暂停比赛时(球员重伤、场外干扰或球出现质量问题)使用。此种重开赛在成人赛中较少见。

  If the time runs out while a team is preparing for a free-stroke or penalty, the strike should still be made but it must go into the goal by one shot to count as a goal. Similarly, a goal made via a corner stroke should be allowed, but it must be executed using only one shot in addition to the strike needed to put the ball in play.

  如果一队在准备发任意球或点球时比赛到时结束,击球仍算有效且必须是一击破门才算得分,同样的情况也适用于发角球,但必须是发球入界内后再通过一击完成。

  Free-strokes and penalty shots

  任意球和点球

  Free-strokes can be awarded to a team if a player of the opposite team offends any rule, e.g. by hitting with the stick against the opponent's stick or skates. Free-strokes can also be awarded upon incorrect execution of corner-strikes, free-strikes, goal-throws, etc. or the use of incorrect equipment, such as a broken stick.

  如果对方球员犯规(如使用球杆击打对方球杆或冰鞋),判另一方发任意球。如果角球、任意球和球门掷球方式不正确或使用错误的比赛用具(球杆断裂),同样可以判罚任意球。

  Rather than stopping play, the referee may allow play to continue when its continuation will benefit the team against which an offence has been committed. This is known as "playing an advantage". The referee may "call back" play and penalise the original offence if the anticipated advantage does not ensue within a short period of time, typically taken to be four to five seconds. Even if an offence is not penalised because the referee plays an advantage, the offender may still be sanctioned (see below) for any associated misconduct at the next stoppage of play.

  如果裁判员认为继续进行比赛将使被犯规的一队获益,可以不必暂停比赛。这被称为“攻方有利原则”,但如果预计的有利获益在短时间内没有发生(通常为4-5秒),裁判可以“召回”比赛并对之前的犯规进行判罚。即使裁判采取了攻方有利原则没有判罚犯规,犯规一方也会在下一次暂停时为此次犯规而受到判罚。

  If a defender violently attacks an opponent within the penalty area, a penalty shot is awarded. Certain other offences, when carried out within the penalty area, result in a penalty shot provided there is a goal situation. These offences include a defender holding or hooking an attacker, or blocking a goal situation with a lifted skate, thrown stick or glove etc. Also, the defenders (with the exception of the goal-keeper) are not allowed to kneel or lay on the ice. The final offences that might mandate a penalty shot are those of hitting or blocking an opponent's stick or touching the ball with the hands, arms, stick or head above the shoulders. If any of these actions is carried out in a non-goal situation, they shall be awarded with a free-stroke from one of the free-stroke spots at the penalty area line. A penalty shot should always be accompanied by a 5 or 10 minutes penalty (see below). If the penalty results in a goal, the penalty should be considered personal meaning that a substitute can be sent in for the penalised player. This does not apply in the event of a red card (see below).

  如果防守方在禁区内激烈冲撞对手,应判罚点球。其他类在禁区内的犯规,如果处于射门时期就要判罚点球。此类犯规包括防守方拖拽、抱住进攻方或通过抬起冰鞋、投掷球杆和手套等阻挡射门。也不允许防守方(守门员除外)跪或躺在冰面。可判罚点球的最后一种犯规是击打或阻碍对手球杆,或用手、手臂、球杆、肩部以上的头部部位触球。如上述行为发生在非射门时期,应判罚从禁区线上的任意球点发任意球。点球判罚同时还伴有5或10分钟的人身判罚(见下)。如果点球射门得分,则判罚只针对犯规球员个人,替补球员可以上场代替受罚球员。此情况不适用于红牌判罚(见下)。

  Warnings and penalties

  警告和判罚

  A ten minutes penalty is indicated through the use of a blue card and can be caused by protesting or behaving incorrectly, attacking an opponent violently or stopping the ball incorrectly to get an advantage.

  出示蓝牌表示10分钟判罚,通常原因是与裁判争辩或行为不当、粗暴攻击对方或用错误方式停球以占优。

  The third time a player receives a penalty, it will be a personal penalty meaning he or she will miss the remainder of the match. A substitute can enter the field after five or ten minutes. A full game penalty can be received upon using abusive language or directly attacking an opponent and means that the player can neither play nor be substituted for the remainder of the game. A match penalty is indicated through the use of a red card.

  如有一名球员接到3次判罚。这意味着他/她本人将无法参与剩下的比赛。5或10分钟后替补球员可以上场。使用侮辱性语言或直接攻击对方将受到全场禁赛判罚,意味着该球员既不可被替换也无法完成剩余比赛。出示红牌表示比赛判罚。

  Offside

  越位

  The offside rule effectively limits the ability of attacking players to remain forward (i.e. closer to the opponent's goal-line) of the ball, the second-to-last defending player (which can include the goalkeeper), and the half-way line. This rule is in effect just like that of football.

  越位规则有效地限制了进攻方不得越到球的前方(靠近对方球门线)、防守方倒数第二名球员(可以包括守门员)和半场线。本规则与足球比赛规则相同。


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